What kinds of tools are commonly used in CNC machining ?

1. turning tool

Turning tool is one of the most widely used tools in metal cutting of CNC machining. It can be used on lathes to process outer circles, end planes, threads and inner holes, as well as grooving and cutting. The turning tool can be divided into integral turning tool, welding assembly turning tool and mechanical clamping tool. The turning tool with mechanical clamping blade can be divided into machine tool turning tool and indexable turning tool. The cutting performance of mechanical clamping lathe tool is stable, and workers do not need to grind the tool, so it is more and more used in modern production.


2. Hole Machining Tools

Hole processing tools can generally be divided into two categories: one is the tool that processes holes from solid materials, commonly used are twist drill, center drill and deep hole drill; the other is the tool that reprocesses existing holes on the workpiece, commonly used are reaming drill, reamer and boring cutter. For example, the structure of the standard high-speed steel twist drill is shown below. The front end of the working part (cutter body) is the cutting part, which undertakes the main cutting work, and the back end is the guiding part, which plays the role of guiding the drill bit and is also the backup part of the cutting part.


3. Milling cutter

Milling cutter is a widely used multi-edge rotary tool, and there are many kinds of it. According to their uses, they can be divided into: 1) surface milling, such as cylindrical plane milling cutter and end milling cutter; 2) groove milling, such as end milling cutter, T-shaped cutter and angle milling cutter; 3) forming surface milling, such as convex and concave semi-circular milling cutter and milling cutter for processing other complex forming surface. The productivity of milling is generally higher and the roughness value of machined surface is larger.


4. Broach

Broach is a multi-tooth tool with high machining accuracy and cutting efficiency. It is widely used in mass production and can process various internal and external surfaces. Broaches can be divided into internal Broaches and external broaches according to the surface of the workpiece processed. In broach processing, besides choosing the front and rear angles of the cutter teeth according to the material of the workpiece, and determining the size of the broach according to the size of the workpiece's machined surface (such as the diameter of the circular hole), two parameters need to be determined: (1) the tooth elevation angle AF [i.e. the difference of radius or height between the front and rear cutter teeth (or tooth group)]; (2) the pitch P [i.e. the axis between the adjacent two cutter teeth]. Directional distance.


5. Gear cutters

Gear cutter is used to process gear tooth profile. According to the working principle of the cutter, the gear is divided into forming gear cutter and forming gear cutter. Commonly used forming gear cutters are disc gear milling cutter and finger gear cutter. The commonly used generating gear cutters are gear shaper cutter, gear hob and shaving cutter. When choosing gear hob and gear shaping cutter, the following points should be noticed: (1) The basic parameters of the cutter (modulus, tooth shape angle, tooth top height coefficient, etc.) should be the same as that of the machined gear. (2) The accuracy level of the cutter should be equal to that required by the machined gear. (3) The rotary direction of the cutter should be the same as that of the machined gear as far as possible. When hobbing spur gears, the left-handed gear cutter is usually used.

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