Main Core Components of CNC Machining Center

CNC machining center is composed of many core parts and related connectors. Any problem in any link may cause serious damage to CNC machining center. So, first of all, we need to start with the core components:

1.Spindle.
Machining center spindle is also called electric spindle. It is an application technology that integrates the spindle of NC machining center and spindle motor. It is also an actuator of forming motion of machining center. There are motorized spindle itself and its accessories: motorized spindle, high frequency frequency converter, oil mist lubricator, cooling device, built-in encoder, tool changer, etc. Therefore, the speed and accuracy of the spindle of the machining center also determine the accuracy and performance stability of the whole processing equipment.

2.Ball screw
The most commonly used transmission element in precision machinery has the characteristics of high precision, reversibility and high efficiency. Its main function is to convert rotary motion into linear motion, or to convert torque into axial repetitive force. Its manufacturing requirements are also relatively high, including material quality and assembly accuracy.

Ball screw determines the transmission accuracy of equipment. Its material quality, accuracy, pre-tightening force, cutting resistance, lubrication, load and so on may cause faster wear of ball screw, resulting in clearance or other irreparable problems. So this is also the key point.

3.Tool storehouse
There are three types of tool warehouse in CNC machining center: bucket hat, disk and chain, and the number of tool holdings increases in turn.
Bucket-hat type tool storehouse is usually near the spindle head. When changing the tool, it needs up and down movement in the direction of the spindle, which occupies working time and reduces working efficiency. It also affects the range of working stroke in the direction of the spindle, but because of its simple structure, the failure rate is relatively low.

The disc tool storehouse uses the manipulator to change the knife, which has a high speed of changing the knife, but the failure rate is relatively high. There are also a few disc tool storehouses and the hat tool storehouse to change the knife directly through the spindle. The chain type is generally applied to machines with high number of cutters.

The commonly used ball screw in CNC machining center can be divided into P2/C2, P3/C3, P4/C4, P5/C5 (the smaller the number, the higher the accuracy, ours is P5/C5), according to the process, the rolling level and grinding level are divided, and the accuracy of the latter is higher than that of the former. 

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