Classification of Metal Cutting Fluids in CNC Machining

Aqueous solution, emulsifier and cutting oil are the three most commonly used cutting fluids in CNC machining.

1. Aqueous Solutions
Aqueous solution is a cutting fluid with water as its main component. Water has good thermal conductivity and cooling effect, but pure water easily rusts metals and has poor lubricity. Therefore, a certain amount of additives, such as anti-rust additives, surfactants and oily additives, are often added to the aqueous solution to make it not only have good anti-rust properties, but also have certain lubrication properties. When preparing water solution, special attention should be paid to the water quality. If it is hard water, softening treatment must be carried out.

2. Emulsifiers
Emulsion is a kind of liquid, which is milky white or translucent, diluted by 95%-98% water. It has good cooling effect. But the lubrication and anti-rust properties are poor. Usually a certain amount of oiliness, extreme pressure additives and rust-proof additives are added to prepare extreme pressure emulsifier or rust-proof emulsifier.

3. Cutting oils
The main component of cutting oil is mineral oil, a few of which are animal oil or compound oil. Pure mineral oils do not form strong lubrication and rust resistance at the friction interface.

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